Chemical reactions are known for their ‘stochastic’ encounters between elements that too if they are a decent match. But what if scientists want an exotic pairing of elements? What if scientists want a molecule which can be obtained by the atoms of elements which wouldn’t normally form a molecule? The way of seeing and performing chemical reactions may change drastically from now on as researchers from the US have just performed the world’s most precisely controlled chemical reaction scaling a reaction down as small as it can go, sticking together just two atoms from elements that wouldn’t normally form a molecule. Chemical reactions normally proceed through the random collisions of particles and are usually hit-and-miss affairs, where vast numbers of atoms are thrown together under the right conditions, and probability does the rest.
Laboratories in the past have created molecules by combining clusters of atoms, and the reactions were then measured in terms of averages. The goal was to gain additional insights on how molecules interact and to enable controls for reaction chemistry and design new quantum materials. A team of Harvard University researchers under the leadership of Kang-Kueng Ni began with just one atom of Sodium and Caesium each. They used laser ‘tweezers’ to set them to the different frequencies depending on their polarizabilities to manipulate individual atoms of these two alkali metals into close proximity, and provided a photon to help them bond into a single molecule. It is known as a ‘Photo Association’ reaction.
An interesting alloy like molecule was produced by these atoms. The method of creation used could pave a way to a much better understanding of reactions and this could lead to the kind of materials we might need in the future. Researchers say the discovery holds great promise for the future of quantum computing as the dipolar molecule constitutes a new type of qubit, the smallest unit of quantum information, which could lead to more-efficient devices in the future. The lead researcher, Kang Kueng Ni, said,
“The direction of quantum information processing is one of the things we’re excited about.”
If these two atoms happen to be close enough with the right energy, a connection can be formed no matter how improbable it sounds but it doesn’t seem impossible.