The Stanton paper was presented at the State Department in 1996, shortly after the Rwandan genocide, but it also analyzes the processes in the Holocaust, the Cambodian genocide, and other genocides. The preventive measures suggested are those that the United States, national governments, and United Nations could implement or influence other governments to implement.
People are divided into “them and us“.
“When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups…”
“Law or cultural power excludes groups from full civil rights: segregation or apartheid laws, denial of voting rights”.
“One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects, or diseases.”
“Genocide is always organized… Special army units or militias are often trained and armed…”
“Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda…”
“Mass killing is planned. Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity…”
“Expropriation, forced displacement, ghettos, concentration camps”.
“It is ‘extermination’ to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human“.
“The perpetrators… deny that they committed any crimes…”
It’s important to note that this is not a linear process. Later stages must be preceded by earlier stages but all stages continue to operate throughout the entire process.