The New Deal was issued in response to the market crisis of 1929 and its economic fallout, caused by Papal Rome through its faithful servant Joseph P. Kennedy – that Knight of Malta having been the number one short seller of stock leading to the market crash. The Vatican was then able to buy up the stock market for pennies on the dollar with the billions of lira they received previously that same year from Mussolini (controlled by Tacchi Venturi, S.J.) in the Lateran Accord. The New Deal primarily benefited existing immigrant Catholics the most, and helped to economically elevate them from the ghettos to the middle class in order to compete with Protestants. The New Deal was based on the Bishop’s Program of Catholic priest John A. Ryan.